Shira Diamonds Dallas Blog is about diamonds, loose diamonds, new diamonds, diamond education, and new diamond rings created by Shira-Diamonds.com
Diamond wholesalers who reported brisk sales in recent months find themselves in the minority as most around the country spoke of quiet activity. "It's tough right now as people are still not buying," said Richard Ribacoff, business partner at Shira Diamonds, a diamond wholesaler in Dallas, Texas. Noam Drori, owner of NDC Diamonds, a diamond wholesaler in Redmond, Washington, felt that the country seemed to still be in a "recession" mind-set of spending, even if actual economic figures showed otherwise.
Many sellers felt that staying in the wholesale industry has become increasingly challenging and that selling diamonds these days isn't what it used to be ten to 15 years ago. "I have to work harder to make the same sale these days," commented Roger Pessah, president of RP Diamond & Gold Imports, Inc., a diamond wholesaler in San Francisco, California. He added that people in the diamond business need a new way to talk to their clients and consumers about diamonds if the industry were to survive. While diamantaires felt that in the past two months diamond prices had been acceptable — many were able to get their asking selling prices within reasonable limits and most experienced no inventory trouble — the lack of demand from buyers was concerning.
Diamonds Not a Priority
Wholesalers who deal directly with consumers have noted a change in diamonds bought for engagement rings. "Consumers are still pessimistic about the economy, and as a result they're spending on things like their houses instead of diamonds," noted Pessah. "That is not to say they don't want big stones — they just don't want to spend the price on them," he said. Ribacoff agreed with the sentiment and said that it used to be that consumers would approach them directly and get engagement rings costing around $24,000. These days, it is not uncommon for younger customers to look for engagement diamonds of around $6,000.
Retailers aren't exactly buying either, not just because of poor impressions of the economy, but also the uncertainty brought about by the ongoing presidential elections. "Buyers are still thinking it's better to wait and see what happens before making any purchase decisions," Drori noted.
While diamantaires selling direct to customers isn't new, Ribacoff noted that the trend to do so has increased tremendously in the past few years. "There are so many wholesalers opening storefronts these days," he pointed out. Wholesalers need to be consumer facing these days and not just sell to retailers to even survive. "My retail side is probably doing better than my wholesale side," Ribacoff said, adding that while he felt his company probably fared better than many other smaller wholesalers, bigger players have it easier. Bigger companies have more resources to survive extended challenging conditions such as the current trying time the industry is facing, he explained.
"Things are getting more competitive than before," commented Joel McCully, manager and owner of Diamond Banque, a jeweler and diamond wholesaler in Bellevue, Washington. He noted more competing businesses were popping up around him, both physically and online. Unlike other sellers who felt that the country still seemed to be in the doldrums, McCully commented that the gradually improving economy and good weather seemed to have energized his clients, both retailers and consumers.
One of the keys to succeeding is having an effective online presence, said Roy Izakov, vice president and CEO of Motek Diamonds by IDC, a diamond wholesaler in Dallas, Texas. "Here in Texas, people still believe that 'bigger is better' and people still want to show off their status," Izakov said and wholesalers need that extra edge to secure those customers. He believes that the role of the wholesaler today has changed: The days of diamantaires solely dealing in memos and credit for wholesale diamonds for buyers are gone as consumers are buying direct from wholesale. As a result, suppliers to wholesalers also need to be more flexible in pricing to be able to handle the changing demands of consumers.
"There can be no room for error these days," said Pessah. "Customers today can simply go online to buy diamonds, but what will bring them back to you is what you can offer them in person." He felt that sellers and their staff have to be knowledgeable about the product because selling diamonds is about trust. When customers and clients feel that they can trust the vendor and his or her expertise, they will choose to buy from that vendor rather than via clicks online, Pessah concluded.
To identify laser drilled diamond is simple. Laser drilling is the process to enhance diamond clarity. It basically changes black inclusion into white, hence less noticeable with naked eyes. In this laser drilling process, tiny hole is drilled with laser which reaches to the black or colour inclusion. Laser passed through that pit melts or burns out dark inclusion and thin hairline sized hole is left behind. Another process called fracture filling helps to fill this small hole with crystal substance, thus enhance diamond clarity.
Close Look at Patterns: Laser drilled diamond usually have thin hairline pattern from skin toward inside. To check out this tunnel use 10X diamond loupe. Below image shows parallel tunnel line and hole on facet which is caused use to laser. It is sometime hard to find for untrained person.
Use Microscope: Using microscope is the easiest way to check drilled diamond. Even tiny hole in diamond appears big in microscope. You can judge drills in diamond by checking out patters shown in below image.
Check Certificate: Clarity enhanced diamond usually abbreviated as "CE". GIA lab mention about laser drilled holes under comment section on GIA certified.
Laser drilling usually improve diamond purity by one step. For example diamond with SI2 clarity submitted under laser drilling process can be outcome as SI1 clarity. But diamond with more holes and laser tunnels, weakens its strength, thus chances of break out increases.
Use Cotton: If you own loose diamond or an engagement ring with laser drilled diamond, keep it between cotton when not in use. Cotton helps the stone from damage cause due to the force.
Prevent from hit: Handle it with care. If you lose it and get hit by hard surface, there are very good chances of damage to your stone.
Note : Laser drilled diamond without crystal or fracture filling have less value. Also Laser drilled and fracture filled diamond are cheaper than usual certified stones. I always recommend to buy stones with GIA certificate. If you are buying non certified stone. Check all the aspect before buying diamond. Also ask to expert before making final purchase.
World is full of most precious jewels, but the diamonds are one of the top pest in list. But how to tell if diamonds are real or fake? In century of history with the mankind, diamonds played different role in every decades. In a once, glory for mankind and on other side as bloodshed.
Due to the precious in price and astonishing luster, diamonds have win hearts of mankind. These make forgery in diamonds.
In a past, one of the most common technique or a traditional method to test a solitaire is to scratch a diamond with glass –if a glass is scraped or scratched, the diamond is real. But some fake diamonds can also scratch glass. Scratching method is now outdated. So how can you tell if a diamond is real? Here, how you can examine.
HOW TO TELL IF DIAMONDS ARE REAL OR FAKE? 5 FOOLPROOF METHOD
Loupe are said as magnifying glass, usually a person can buy from a stationery or from jeweler shop. While noticing gem under loupe you will find imperfection in carbon because majority of diamonds are made from nature factory- A fake stone will be absolute perfect, so here the game becomes easy. But good quality real diamonds are eye clean and inclusion less, so you might not find any impurities. Using loupe to tell if a diamonds are real or fake is for experience person.
Luster in diamond is its pride. Inside the stone, it will sparkle grey and white (known as "brilliance") while outside of the gem, it will reflect colors similar to rainbow on surfaces (this dispersed light is known as "fire"). Some people misunderstand that diamonds sparkle like rainbow, but in reality they don't. Real diamond sparkle more as grey to white shiny, if you found rainbow inside a stone, it's probably not real diamond or fake diamond.
Another test requires exhaling on the gem, similar as seen in picture. Diamonds are good at conducting heat. As soon as you fog, your breath on stone would clear instantly. In case fog stays for a couple of seconds probably it can be fake. Cubic zirconium also shows similar result as real one so it make a confusion.
This trick is simple and easy for household. Diamonds sharply bend, or refract, the light that passes through, resulting in their strikingly brilliant appearance. Whereas other stones like glass and quartz sparkle less because they have a lower refractive index.
So with the help of this knowledge diamond can be examine with the help of newspaper. Keep a stone on paper, If you can read print through the stone, then it probably isn't a real diamond.
Diamond are said toughest material, by rubbing sand paper on diamond will give a result quickly. If a stone get scratched it is said as fake diamond. Whereas if no mark found of scrubbing on diamond, it is said as real.
With this you can quickly identify and can take correct decision, hopefully you learned;how to tell if diamonds are real or fake.
Over to you: So the next time you run across something you think is just cheap costume jewellery, it's important to test it – just in case. We still suggest to double check your diamond is real or fake by visiting jewellers shop or concern right person. Who knows? may be your diamonds are real or fake. If you find this article about "how to tell if diamonds are real or fake" helpful please consider sharing on social media. Share awareness, help your friends to choose real diamonds. Got question? comment below and gem experts will reply asap.
Round brilliant cut (RBC) is the most popular diamond shape among other shapes of diamonds. Cuts like Emerald, Princess, Asscher, Radiant, Cushion, Oval, Pear, Marquise & Heart can be bought online or from local markets. Various diamond shape and cut creates surprising fire and pattern in diamonds, thus diamond shapes adds WOW factor.
Very often people consider "diamond shape" and "diamond cut" as same, however it is totally two different aspects. Diamond cut is quality guidelines in making or cutting of any diamond i.e excellent cut, very good cut, good cut diamonds. Whereas shapes of diamondsare round shape (RBC) heart shape, oval shape etc.
Diamonds have a long history as beautiful objects of desire. In the first century AD, the Roman naturalist Pliny stated: "Diamond is the most valuable, not only of precious stones, but of all things in this world."
A diamond has to go through a lot before it reaches the jeweler's display case. It forms deep in the earth under extreme heat and pressure. It's ejected violently upward until it arrives at or near the earth's surface. It's forced from its hiding place by nature or by man. Then it's cleaved and cut and polished until its natural beauty shines through.
The world's love of diamonds had its start in India, where diamonds were gathered from the country's rivers and streams. Some historians estimate that India was trading in diamonds as early as the fourth century BC. The country's resources yielded limited quantities for an equally limited market: India's very wealthy classes. Gradually, though, this changed. Indian diamonds found their way, along with other exotic merchandise, to Western Europe in the caravans that traveled to Venice's medieval markets. By the 1400s, diamonds were becoming fashionable accessories for Europe's elite.
In the early 1700s, as India's diamond supplies began to decline, Brazil emerged as an important source. Diamonds were discovered in the pans of gold miners as they sifted through the gravels of local rivers. Once it reached its full potential, Brazil dominated the diamond market for more than 150 years.
While sources changed, the diamond market experienced its own evolution. The old ruling classes—diamonds' biggest consumers—were in decline by the late 1700s. Political upheavals like the French Revolution led to changes in the distribution of wealth.
The 1800s brought increasing affluence to western Europe and the United States. Explorers unearthed the first great South African diamond deposits in the late 1800s just as diamond demand broadened.
By the early 1900s, De Beers controlled about 90 percent of the world's production of rough diamonds. - Courtesy De BeersThe story of the modern diamond market really begins on the African continent, with the 1866 discovery of diamonds in Kimberley, South Africa. Entrepreneur Cecil Rhodes established De Beers Consolidated Mines Limited 22 years later, in 1888. By 1900, De Beers, through its mines in South Africa, controlled an estimated 90 percent of the world's production of rough diamonds.
The South African sources affected many segments of the diamond industry. This was especially true as diamond mining moved from the surface to farther underground. Because of the huge costs and comparatively low yields involved, the new sources forced the development of more efficient mining techniques. They created the need for better marketing. They also led to advances in cutting and polishing—advances that increased efficiency, reduced costs, and enhanced the appearance of finished stones.
In the 1870s, annual production of rough diamond was well under a million carats. By the 1920s, the figure was around three million carats. Fifty years later, annual production approached 50 million carats, and in the 1990s it surpassed 100 million carats per year.
At the end of the 1970s, the world's most important rough diamond producers were South Africa, Zaire (now renamed the Democratic Republic of Congo), and the former Soviet Union. In the 1980s, output of higher-quality diamonds from Russia and South Africa remained relatively constant, but Zaire's production of lower-quality diamonds more than doubled.
In 1982, a highly productive new mine in Botswana added to world production. A prolific source of high-quality diamonds, the Jwaneng mine boosted Botswana's production so much that the country rose to third in the world in total diamond recovery, and second in diamond value. De Beers contracted with Botswana's government to buy the mine's production and Botswana set out to build its own diamond-cutting industry.
World diamond mining expanded dramatically with the discovery of sources in Australia in 1985 and important new deposits in northern Canada in 2000.
The market probably changed as much after 1990 as it did in the years after the 1866 discovery of diamonds in South Africa and the establishment of De Beers. The 1990s brought exciting new sources and encouraged the dramatic growth of some cutting centers. All this was happening as the world economy fluctuated wildly.
As one of the trade's major participants, De Beers had to change, too. The De Beers of today bears little resemblance to the De Beers of 1989. The company greatly reduced its role as the custodian of diamond supply. Instead of flowing into the market in a single-channel path from De Beers, diamonds now flow into the market through multiple channels.
Not everything changed, though. Regardless of the path they take, diamonds still flow from mines through cutting centers, and ultimately to retail customers.
Diamond's splendor has been appreciated for centuries, but there was not much scientific knowledge about it before the twentieth century. Since then, diamond knowledge has grown steadily, with research by chemists, physicists, geologists, mineralogists, and oceanographers. In the past 50 years alone, scientists have learned a lot about how diamonds form and how they're transported to the earth's surface. That knowledge has made it easier to predict locations for new diamond discoveries.
"Diamond" comes from the Greek adamao, which signifies "I tame" or "I subdue." From ancient times, the adjective adamas was used to describe the hardest substance known to men. It eventually became a synonym for the word diamond. It is believed that Adamas previously referred to the second hardest mineral, corundum (the gem variety is sapphire)or to something else altogether. Due to this problem of uncertainty surrounding the names, it is difficult to trace the history of the diamond.
It's hard to choose the right Mother's Day gift when you know your Mom will love whatever you get her, simply because you got it for her. But this is no reason not to spoil her with a timeless keepsake she can wear everyday and will cherish forever. There is no better gift than jewelry to say I love youand stand the test of time. To make your hunt a little easier, we've rounded up some of the most popular Mother's Day jewelry picks this year.
Not solely dedicated to Mother's Day, diamond pendants are a best-seller that should be on everyone's radar. From diamond studs to initial and diamond rings, the halo necklace trend is not going anywhere anytime soon, and it's a creative gift for Mom!
More of a traditional Mother's Day gift, birthstone rings can be customized for any Mom. Whether you want your gift to simply represent Mom's birthstone, or the birthstones of everyone in the family, the options are seemingly endless with customizable mothers' birthstone rings.
For hundreds of years the Diamond has fascinated man for its alluring sparkle and physical hardness exceeding all other gems. Formed about 3 billion years ago beneth the the Earth's crust by extreme heat, it may be the oldest item you will ever own. Before the rough diamond is transformed into a beautiful piece of jewelry, it must undergo several stages in its production.
Stage 1 - Mining the Diamond Rough
Roughly 50% of diamonds come from Africa, although some sources of diamonds have been discovered in India, Russia, Canada and Australia. The diamonds that made it to the surface were forced up volcanic activity, through kimberlite pipes. A typical pipe mine consists of a large vertical shaft and tunnels running from the main pipe. The deepest mine runs about 160 kilometers, down into the earth with hundreds of tons of rock, gravel and sand that need to be blasted, drilled, crushed and processed to yield just 27,000 kg mined annually. Only about 20% of all rough diamonds are suitable for polishing and the rest are used for industrial purposes. Once the rough is found, it is sold to the manufacturers.
Stage 2 - Rough Reaches the Market
A large proportion of the world's rough supply goes to De Beers' Central Selling Organization (CSO). The rough that the Central Selling Organization buys is sorted into more than 5,000 different categories. Once the rough is priced and sorted, it is then sold to manufacturers at sights and there are ten sights yearly, each lasting a week. The chosen few allowed the chance to purchase at these sights are called Sightholders. The balance of the world's rough supply is sold to private buyers and through private auctions.
Stage 3 - Diamond Manufacturing
Regardless of the source, all rough diamonds eventually end up at the cutting centers. Today, the major cutting centers are Israel, Antwerp, Bombay, Johannesburg, & New York. Upon reaching its destination the rough is carefully examined, now adays with the help of computers, decisions are made on how it should be cut to yield the greatest value. After the stone's size and shape are determined, taking into consideration the rough's shape, as well as the quantity and position of its internal inclusions, the stone is marked and usually sawed. The stone then goes through a series of diamond cutters who each have their own specialty. Finally, the diamond is polished and cleaned, all ready for sale.
Stage 4 - The Final Journey
After the diamond is manufactured it needs to be sold but for decades, diamond manufacturers have sold their cut diamonds to jewelry manufacturers and wholesalers who in turn, sell to jewelry diamond dealers and to retail jewelry stores. Today's Internet technology is changing the diamond market, diamond manufacturers now have a direct link to the final customer. Through the internet, it is possible to purchase the same quality diamond for a significantly lower price because it does away with the middleman.
1) Choose a jeweler as you would choose a doctor.
He or she should be armed with expert training, open to questions and able to provide answers in clear, simple language.
A measure of a jeweler's knowledge is whether he is professionally trained. Preferably, his training comes from a highly-recognized and internationally accredited program, such as the GIA Graduate Gemologist (GG) or Accredited Jewelry Professional (AJP) diploma programs. An educated jeweler will not only explain the 4Cs of diamond quality to you, but will be able to demonstrate the differences between apparently similar stones. They will also encourage you to compare a number of diamonds that fall in your budget.
2) Understand the 4Cs of Diamond Quality
This basic knowledge will not only unlock the mystery of a diamond's quality, it will help you understand a diamond's value and price.
Diamond Color In most diamonds, the term actually refers to the absence of color. The less color in the stone, the more desirable and valuable it is. Some of these differences are not visible to the naked eye, but directly impact the overall quality and price of the stone.
Diamond Clarity measures the amount, size and placement of internal 'inclusions,' and external 'blemishes.' Grades run from 'Flawless,' with virtually no imperfections, to 'Included,' which contain a significant number of imperfections.
Diamond Cut does not refer to a diamond's shape, but to the proportion and arrangement of its facets and the quality of workmanship. The amount of brilliance, sparkle and fire in a diamond is determined by cut. Grades range from 'Excellent' to 'Poor.'
Diamond Carat refers to a diamond's weight. Generally speaking, the higher the carat weight, the more expensive the stone. Two diamonds of equal carat weight, however, can have very different quality and price when the other three Cs are considered.
No matter how beautiful a diamond may look you simply cannot see its true quality. The 4Cs of diamond quality will provide you with the information you need to know the diamond's actual quality.
3) Insist On a Diamond Grading Report.
A diamond grading report from an unbiased, scientific source such as GIA is more than important information, it's proof of what you are purchasing. The differences in diamonds can be so subtle, even a trained jeweler can't recognize them without lab verification. Insist that any diamond you buy come with an indisputable verification of its quality.
4) Protect The Purchase.
Have your diamond appraised and insured. Appraisers and insurers rely on diamond grading reports to accurately evaluate the value of gems. As an additional measure, consider having your diamond laser-inscribed with its GIA report number, to provide verification if it is ever lost or stolen.
Whether you are planning an intimate proposal or a public proclamation of your love, presenting your would be wife with the perfect diamond engagement ring will enhance the joy of the moment. She's sure to remember your proposal forever, and will treasure her carefully chosen engagement ring as a symbol of your eternal love. While it's uncommon for a couple to shop together for an engagement ring, some grooms still prefer to surprise the to-be-bride with a ring of their choosing. After choosing from yourself, may be you can ask for a second opinion from one of the close friend of your would be wife.
In regard to diamonds, cut and shape are not synonymous terms. While the diamond's cut refers to the number of facets and their proportions, its shape is used to describe the overall form of the finished stone. Some common shapes of the diamonds, diamond engagement rings have are round diamonds, princess cut diamond, oval diamond, marquise diamond, pear shaped diamond, cushion shaped diamond, emerald cut diamond, heart shaped diamond and radiant cut diamond.
Nuggets of wisdom while purchasing your diamond engagement ring:
Diamond rings stand out in every occasion. They make heads turn. As per research polls, women prefer to buy wholesale diamonds anytime compared to the other jewelries. Women have a special attachment, or maybe we could even call it an obsession towards diamonds. It does have the magnetic effect towards people.
In a stroke of good fortune, the Lucara Diamond firm discovered the world's second-largest diamond of gem quality in Botswana. This 1,111-carat diamond is second only to the 3,106-carat Cullinan diamond found in South Africa in 1905. The gem measures 65mm x 56mm x 40mm and was recovered from the Karowe mine located north of the capital Gaborone.
This diamond (Karowe AK6), the largest found in over a century, has yet to be evaluated and thus far has no price tag or potential buyer. The diamond rates as a Type-IIa stone and is roughly the size of a tennis ball. It is extremely hard to estimate the value of the diamond given the unknown color, clarity, and cutting.
To provide an estimate of final selling price, Lucara recently sold a 341.9-carat diamond of roughly the same quality for $20.6 million, equaling out to $60,251 per carat. If you were to extrapolate the same cost per carat for the newly found 1,111-carat diamond, it could sell for a whopping $66.9 million!
"This has been an amazing week for Lucara with the recovery of the second largest and also the sixth largest gem quality diamonds ever mined," William Lamb, chief executive officer of Lucara. On the wave of this news, Lucara's stock price rose 32%, adding $150 million to its market value.
Where does the diamond go next?
With a diamond of this caliber the process of determining a tender, getting it cut, polished, and sold will likely take years to complete. Lucara found that the diamond was too big to fit within their in-house scanner and thus requires a larger 3rd party scanner.
A 1,111-carat diamond is shown against a hand lens for scale. The diamond was discovered in the Karowe mine in Botswana. Credit: Lucara Diamond Corp)
The eventual fate of the diamond may be as several smaller cut diamonds. The Cullinan diamond was cut into many different stones, including the Great Star of Africa, for the British royalty's crown jewels. The diamond will be scanned and rendered in 3D to determine the best use of the diamond and how many pieces to cut it into.
The diamond market has been hot lately, with Hong Kong billionaire Joseph Lau paying $48.4 million for a 12.03-carat blue diamond. The most expensive diamond that was ever sold at auction was the "PinkStar" pink diamond for $82 million in 2013.
Lucara's fortune did not stop at the incredible 1,111-carat diamond; they also discovered an 813-carat and 374-carat diamond the same week. Given the rarity of the 1,111-carat diamond, the price could easily overwhelm price per carat norms.
The Karowe mine generates diamonds from its three kimberlite pipes, the south, center, and north lobes. Each lobe outcrops at surface and the majority is located within 10m from the surface. The mine books an estimated 6.3-million carats of diamonds in reserves, with 1.5mm as the bottom cutoff in size.
Buying fine jewelry, gold and diamond ornaments, and other such items can actually be a surprisingly involved process. Of course, these aren't items that you often need to buy, but many people – when they do come across occasions on which they need to buy such things – end up stressing out about all of the different ways to purchase and invest in such items. Indeed, there are plenty of different resources for buying items of wealth – you can purchase diamonds from any popular jewelry store online or in your local mall. However, before you start worrying about where to buy your item, figure out what specific item you are actually interested in.
The most common time to need to buy expensive jewelry and ornaments is in the days and weeks preceding a wedding, as this is one of the few occasions that all but requires the presence of diamonds! Specifically, if you are a soon-to-be groom, you certainly need to give a great deal of advanced thought to the engagement ring that your bride will be wearing on her wedding day. Additionally, if you are involved in planning a wedding, and you have the budget to manage it, you may also want to consider outfitting the bridal party in matching diamonds, almost as a sort of decoration. Here are a few things to keep in mind for both considerations.
As a soon-to-be groom, you have probably envisioned the engagement ring you imagine your fiancé wearing – and you have probably come up with something relatively simple. Most people who have never actually purchased such a ring simply imagine a regular band supporting a beautiful diamond. However, particularly these days, there are actually a lot more details that can go into engagement rings. Lately, it is not unusual to pick a more unique style, like a twisted band or a halo setting for your diamond – so, while it is ultimately up to you and your preferred style to select a ring, keep in mind that there may be more options than you imagine.
As for outfitting a wedding with diamond jewelry, this can obviously be a fairly expensive endeavor. However, whether you end up buying gold necklaces, diamond earrings, or any number of other accessories, it can be a subtle but effective touch at a wedding to outfit the bridal party in matching jewelry. Of course, you don't want to take attention away from the beautiful bride, but uniformity of design is important at weddings, so some manner of matching jewelry may be important. Add it to the list of things to consider when planning your event!
Diamonds are forever… Diamonds are a girl's best friend… Whatever cliche you want to use, the fact is the world loves diamonds. This incredibly hard and beautifully sparkling type of precious stone has been a coveted item for centuries. An estimated $13 billion worth of rough diamonds are taken out of the ground each year, the majority weighing just a few carats (1 carat = 0.007055 oz). But every now and again, a monster diamond is found, big enough to amaze the exhausted miners who find it, and when eventually cut into a diamond gemstone, these are grandiose enough to impress even the wealthiest of the world's royalty.
This list of the 10 largest uncut rough diamonds will no doubt evolve in coming years, as the diamond industry is huge – and unsurprisingly, worth a fortune. Ten million people worldwide work in this industry with a value of $72 billion a year. As recently as 2013 two huge rough diamonds were found at the Karowe mine in Botswana, Southern Africa, both coming in at over 200 carats each (1.4 oz). And yet neither of these diamonds makes the top 20, never mind the top 10.
Some of these diamonds have become famous, with fascinating histories behind them. The diamonds in the top two positions on our list are vastly different, but are so massive that the chances of finding their equals are infinitesimally small. That is, unless NASA ever decides to take a mining crew to the prosaically-named planet PSR J1719-1438 b, which has a mass greater than the sun, and is believed to be composed mostly of crystalline carbon – better known to the layperson as diamond. Fortunately for the mining companies worried about cheap space gems, this diamond planet is about 3,900 light years (around 23,000 trillion miles) away!
This giant gem, found in South Africa in 1934, was found by a settler called Johannes Jacobus Jonker, hence its unusual moniker. It's believed the rough diamond was eventually cut into 13 smaller gemstones, with the largest diamond, the Jonker I, still weighing in at an incredible 142.9 carats. Diamonds are valued by weight, color, clarity and various other factors. However, with a colorless flawless diamond valued at $26,125 per carat, the Jonker I could be worth as much as $3.7 million!
Beating the Jonker by a whisper is this Brazilian diamond discovered in 1938. This one was named for Getúlio Dornelles Vargas, who was the President of Brazil at the time. The diamond eventually found its way to Amsterdam and was finally bought by someone not only famous in jewelry circles, but who has also become synonymous with the industry as a whole: American jeweler, Harry Winston. Twenty-nine smaller stones were cut from this rock, with the largest being a flawless 44.17 carat gem which had been re-cut by Winston himself.
Extracted in South Africa in 1985, this beauty was actually given a papal blessing from Pope John Paul II after it had been cut and polished. Diamond specialists worked for years on this rough diamond, managing to eventually produce a cut and faceted diamond that weighed an enormous 545.67 carats, making it the largest finished diamond in the world. It is currently owned by the Royal Family of Thailand. At $26,125 a carat, this incredible diamond could be worth over $14 million if it had been colorless. However, as it is a yellow-brown color, it is "only" valued at $4-$12 million.
Named after the river it was found in, this rock from the famous African diamond-producing nation of Sierra Leone was announced in 1945. Eventually the rough diamond was cut into thirty smaller pieces, wielding colorless and flawless gemstones. These stunning diamonds may be questionable, however, for those concerned with human rights: Sierra Leone is famous for blood diamonds; diamonds that have been mined in areas considered war zones and then sold on to help finance further military activity (usually anti-establishment guerrilla warfare).
This large rough diamond was found in the Democratic Republic of Congo in 1990. An estimated 65% of the world's diamonds come from African nations, and this nation yielded an astonishing cut diamond weighing 203.04 carats. This makes it the second largest colorless and flawless diamond in the world (with the highest purity rating of D; the scale goes from D to Z). It is currently owned by the De Beers Group, a diamond industry controlling company which was founded by the British mining explorer Cecil Rhodes. At carat weight alone, the final pear cut diamond would be worth at least $5 million. But because of its fame, purity and its irreplaceable nature, this gem has been valued at over $160 million.
At 890 carats (just over 6 oz) this Congolese rough diamond was discovered by a young girl in 1989. The smart child noticed the diamond in a pile of rubble and passed it on to her uncle, who sold it to diamond dealers. Like many of the world's diamonds, it ended up at one point in the Belgian city of Antwerp, famous for its diamond district. It took experts years to cut the rough diamond into smaller gems, but they managed to create a beautiful yellow-brown stone weighing 407.48 carats that had been cut into an unusual triangular shape. Strangely enough, this fantastic gemstone actually appeared on eBay in 2002, but went unsold.
A 1972 discovery, this uncut diamond was purchased the same year by the celebrated American jeweler Harry Winston. The rough diamond was cut and produced 17 smaller almost-perfect diamonds. Some of the smaller gems were placed into a piece of exquisitely-crafted jewelry that became known as the Star of Sierra Leone brooch.
Found in 1893 in South Africa, this huge rock was cut into many smaller pieces. The largest gemstone cut from this famous diamond was only 69.68 carats, but many in the diamond industry believe that much larger diamonds could have been taken from the original stone. Intriguingly, another diamond of a similar weight (around 1,000 carats) could have been included in this list, but little is known about it: It's a rare black diamond that has been called The Nameless. No-one seems to know where it came from or when it was discovered, so – for now – it remains a side-note.
Weighing more than three times the weight of the Excelsior Diamond, this is arguably the most famous diamond in the world. It weighed 1.37 lb when discovered by a mining superintendent in South Africa, in 1905, and was named after the owner of the mine, Sir Thomas Cullinan. It was given as a gift to the King of the United Kingdom (Edward VII) and was taken to Amsterdam to be cut. Nine large stones and 96 stones were taken from the rough diamond, including the famous Star of Africa (Cullinan I) which is 530.2 carats and is now part of the Crown Jewels, inserted into the Sceptre with the Cross. The value of the Cullinan diamond has been estimated at $2 billion.
Many still place the Cullinan as the largest rough diamond ever found, with The Golden Jubilee and Star of Africa as the first and second largest polished diamonds in the world respectively. However, "Sergio", a black carbonado diamond from Brazil discovered in 1893, beats all its rivals for weight. These so-called black diamonds are rare and scientists are still in debate over their origins. There are some that believe these black diamonds come from outer space, having travelled to Earth as fragments of an ancient meteor.
We often receive inquiries from our customers who are seeking a particular color of gemstone for a certain jewelry design. Since gemstones are natural materials and each gemstone is unique, it is sometimes difficult to find exact colors.
Pantone's color predictions for 2015 are "soft and cool neutral" colors for spring 2015. It can be a challenge to match gemstones to manufactured colors. However, we would like to provide the nearest colored gemstones to the trending colors for 015.
When it comes to colored gemstones, the most important factor is color, and we like to think that we know our colors well. Therefore, we are proud to present some gemstones that we consider to be close to the Pantone 2015 Spring colors. If you are searching for gemstones that fit certain color specifications, this may help you to find the appropriate gems.
The chart below shows the approximate Pantone colors of 2015 and gemstone types that can be assigned to each color. There are a variety of transparent, translucent and opaque gemstones. The gemstones below vary in value from affordable to collectible.
Please note that our colors may vary slightly from the original Pantone colors and that each gemstone varies, so all gemstones of one particular type may not be the exact preferred shade. This should be seen as a rough guide rather than a definitive guide.
|Aquamarine can be either transparent or translucent (cat's eye aquamarine), whilst Larimar and blue chalcedony are opaque.|
Swiss blue topaz
|Turquoise and azurite are opaque whilst the other choices are transparent. The most affordable transparent gem is Swiss blue topaz, which is one of the reasons why it has always been an extremely popular gemstone. Azurite is named for its vivid blue color, but its low level of hardness renders it a little more sensitive than the more popular turquoise.|
|The closest in color of these is apatite. Aventurine is a translucent to opaque variety of quartz. The other stones are transparent. Tsavorite garnet gems tend to be quite small, whereas apatite stones are available in various sizes.|
Star blue sapphire
|Iolite, sapphire and tanzanite can have violet secondary hues in addition to the blue. Kyanite is the closest transparent gemstone in color, but its low level of hardness can make it a little fragile. Lapis lazuli is opaque and has the added interest of golden pyrite inclusions. Sodalite is also opaque and tends to have white veined patterns.|
|Brown has not been a very popular color for gemstones until fairly recently, with the introduction of "cognac" and "champagne" diamonds. These colors are neutral and beautiful in their own right. These gemstones range from pinkish and peach to brown. These neutral colored gems are mostly transparent, with andesine labradorite and smoky quartz occurring transparent to opaque. Moonstone is typically translucent.|
Pink cultured pearl
|Sapphire, spinel and tourmaline are typically transparent gemstones, opal, rhodochrosite, rhodonite and pearl are opaque and rose quartz is between these, being translucent to transparent. Rose quartz also occurs with asterism (the star effect). Pink tourmaline is also available in interesting bi-colored pink and green gems and even tri-colored "watermelon tourmaline". Rhodochrosite has interesting red to pink stripes and is related to rhodonite. Rhodonite usually has black veined patterns.|
|Orange gemstones range from yellowish to reddish-orange. Gems such as tiger's eye are more earthy brown hues. Some orange gems such as sphalerite have a remarkable luster and fire. Salmon coral and tiger's eye are opaque, whereas the other choices are transparent.|
Cream star moonstone
|There is a great choice of yellow and golden gems, ranging from transparent to opaque. In fact, moonstone can occur transparent to translucent. These yellow gems also include cat's eye lemon quartz. Color change diaspore (marketed as Zultanite™ and Csarite™) has the interesting property of being yellow in daylight and pink in incandescent light, offering two colors in one gemstone. For those looking for a more affordable alternative to canary yellow diamond, yellow sapphire is an excellent choice.|
Sillimanite cat's eye
|This color of gemstone can be difficult to find, with many red gems being too bluish-red or orange-red. However, there are some good choices. For transparent gems, the best choices are zircon and malaya garnet, which are found in unusual rose colors. Almandine garnet tends toward a more vivid red, with some stones having a darker, more brownish hue. The other choices here are translucent to opaque, with some interesting star and cat's eye gems.|
|This color is the most challenging to match with gemstones, since gray is not generally a sought-after gemstone color. However, the best choices here are grayish lavender jadeite (translucent to opaque), silver pearl (opaque) and grayish-blue spinel (transparent).|
Diamond enhancements are specific treatments, performed on natural diamonds (usually those already cut and polished into gems), which are designed to improve the visual gemological characteristics of the diamond in one or more ways. These include clarity treatments such as laser drilling to remove black carbon inclusions, fracture filling to make small internal cracks less visible, color irradiation and annealing treatments to make yellow and brown diamonds a vibrant fancy color such as vivid yellow, blue, or pink.
The CIBJO and government agencies such as the United States Federal Trade Commission explicitly require the disclosure of all diamond treatments at the time of sale. Some treatments, particularly those applied to clarity, remain highly controversial within the industry — this arises from the traditional notion that diamonds hold a unique or "sacred" place among the gemstones, and should not be treated too radically, if for no other reason than a fear of damaging consumer confidence.
Clarity and color enhanced diamonds sell at lower price points when compared to similar, untreated diamonds. This is because enhanced diamonds are originally lower quality before the enhancement is performed, and therefore are priced at a substandard level. After enhancement, the diamonds may visually appear as good as their non-enhanced counterparts. Therefore, treated diamonds appear to have a greater value than they would before treatment, but whether this is in fact the case is questionable.
The development of laser drilling techniques have increased the ability to selectively target, remove and significantly reduce the visibility of black carbon inclusions on a microscopic scale. Diamonds containing black carbon inclusions have been laser-drilled since the late 1960s, a technique credited to Louis Perlman that did a successful test a year after General Electric had made a similar one with a diamond for industrial use in 1962.
The laser drilling process involves the use of an infrared laser (of surgical grade at a wavelength about 1064 nm) to bore very fine holes (less than 0.2 millimeters or 0.005 inches in diameter) into a diamond to create a route of access to a black carbon crystal inclusion. Because diamond is transparent to the wavelength of the laser beam, a coating of amorphous carbon or other energy-absorbent substance is applied to the surface of the diamond to initiate the drilling process. The laser then burns a narrow tube or channel to the inclusion. Once the location of included black carbon crystal has been reached by the drill channel, the diamond is soaked in sulfuric acid to dissolve the black carbon crystal. After soaking in sulfuric acid the black carbon crystal will dissolve and become transparent (colorless) and sometimes slightly whitish opaque. Under microscopic inspection the fine drill or bore holes can be seen, but are not distracting and do not affect sparkle or brilliance of the diamond. While the channels are usually straight in direction, from an entry point on the surface, some drilling techniques are drilled from within, using naturally occurring fractures inside the stone to reach the inclusion in a way that mimics organic "feathers" (This method is sometimes referred to as KM drilling which stands for special drilling in Hebrew). The channels are microscopic so that dirt or debris cannot travel down the channel. The surface-reaching holes can only be seen by reflecting light off of the surface of the diamond during microscopic viewing such as a jeweler's 10x magnifying lens or loupe and are invisible to the naked eye.
While fracture filling as a method to enhance gems has been found in gems over 2,500 years old, the diamond's unique refractive index required a more advanced solution than simple wax and oil treatments. This technology became available roughly 20 years after the time the laser drilling technique was developed. Simply put, "fracture filling" makes tiny natural fractures inside diamonds less visible to the naked eye or even under magnification. Fractures are very common inside diamonds and are created during the diamond's creation in the earth's crust. As the rough diamond travels up from the earth's crust through volcanic pipes it comes under extreme stresses and pressures, and during this travel tiny fractures can form inside the diamond. If these fractures are visible and damaging to the beauty of the diamond, it will have much lower demand and won't be as salable to jewelers and the general public, making them candidates for fracture filling and thus visually improve the appearance of the diamond.
The fracture filling of diamond is often the last step in the process of diamond enhancement, following laser drilling and acid-etching of inclusions, though if the fractures are surface-reaching, no drilling may be required. This process, which involves the use of specially-formulated solutions with a refractive index approximating that of diamond, was pioneered by Zvi Yehuda of Ramat Gan, Israel. Yehuda is now used as a brand name applied to diamonds treated in this manner. Koss & Schechter, another Israel-based firm, attempted to modify Yehuda's process in the 1990s by using halogen-based glasses, but this was unsuccessful. The details behind the Yehuda process have been kept secret, but the filler used is reported to be lead oxychloride glass, which has a fairly low melting point. The New York-based Dialase also treats diamonds via a Yehuda-based process, which is believed to use lead-bismuth oxychloride glass, but research into creating better, more durable, less traceable solutions is still being done, creating more silicone based solutions for the fracture filling process.
The solution present in fracture-filled diamonds can usually be detected by a trained gemologist under the microscope: while each diamond gets a treatment that fits its unique shape, state and fracture status, there may be traces of surface-reaching bore holes and fractures associated with drilled diamonds, air bubbles and flow lines within the glass, which are features never seen in untreated diamond. More dramatic is the so-called "flash effect", which refers to the bright flashes of color seen when a fracture-filled diamond is rotated; the color of these flashes ranges from an electric blue or purple to an orange or yellow, depending on lighting conditions (light field and dark field, respectively). The flashes are best seen with the field of view nearly parallel to the filled fracture's plane (although specific fractures in untreated diamonds may cause similar "flash effect"). In strongly colored diamonds the flash effect may be missed if examination is less than thorough, as the stone's body color will conceal one or more of the flash colors. For example, in brown-tinted "champagne" diamonds, the orange-yellow flashes are concealed, leaving only the blue-purple flashes to be seen. One last but important feature of fracture-filled diamonds is the color of the solution itself: it is sometimes a yellowish to brownish, and along with being visible in transmitted light, it can affect the overall color of the diamond, making the diamond fall an entire color grade after fracture-filling. For this reason fracture-filling is normally only applied to stones whose size is large enough to justify the treatment: however, stones as small as 0.02 carats (4 mg) have been fracture-filled.
The fracture-filling of diamond is a controversial treatment within the industry — and increasingly among the public as well — because some companies do not disclose this process when selling these stones. It is important to note that while fracture filling is a durable process, some solutions are damaged and may even melt at certain temperatures (1,400 °C or 1,670 K), causing the diamond to "sweats" the solution under the heat of a jeweler's torch; thus routine jewelry repair can lead to degradation of clarity caused by the loss of the solution used to fill the cracks, especially if the jeweler is not aware of the treatment.
Positions on certification of enhanced diamonds are polarized. On one hand some gemological laboratories, including that of the influential Gemological Institute of America, refuse to issue certificates for fracture-filled diamonds. Conversely others including EGL (European Gemological Laboratories) & GGL (Global Gem Labs) will certify such diamonds to their achieved clarity level while also stating on the certificate that the diamond is clarity enhanced.
A third type of labs may certify these diamonds to the original clarity level. This rends any treatment benefit moot by disregarding apparent clarity and instead assigning the diamond a grade reflecting its original, pre-treatment clarity. This has raised quite a commotion, as this puts fracture-filled diamonds outside of the traditional realm of diamond certification, damaging their legitimacy as mostly natural diamonds. This demand for clarity enhanced diamond grading has caused the creation of new labs or an update to existing lab procedures to include remarks regarding any clarity enhancements procedures (drilling, fracture filling) into their regular reports, boosting the validity of this trade.
The application of colored tinfoil to the pavilion (back) surfaces of gemstones was common practice during the Georgian and Victorian era; this was the first treatment — aside from cutting and polishing — applied to diamond. Foiled diamonds are mounted in closed-back jewelry settings, which may make their detection problematic. Under magnification, areas where the foil has flaked or lifted away are often seen; moisture that has entered between the stone and foil will also cause degradation and uneven color. Because of its antique status, the presence of foiled diamonds in older jewelry will not detract from its value.
In modern times, more sophisticated surface coatings have been developed; these include violet-blue dyes and vacuum-sputtered films resembling the magnesium fluoride coating on camera lenses. These coatings effectively whiten the apparent color of a yellow-tinted diamond, because the two colors are complementary and act to cancel each other out. Usually only applied to the pavilion or girdle region of a diamond, these coatings are among the hardest treatments to detect — while the dyes may be removed in hot water or alcohol with ease, the vacuum-sputtered films require a dip in sulfuric acid to remove. The films can be detected under high magnification by the presence of raised areas where air bubbles are trapped, and by worn areas where the coating has been scratched off. These treatments are considered fraudulent unless disclosed.
Another coating treatment applies a thin film of synthetic diamond to the surface of a diamond simulant. This gives the simulated diamond certain characteristics of real diamond, including higher resistance to wear and scratching, higher thermal conductivity, and lower electrical conductivity. While resistance to wear is a legitimate goal of this technique, some employ it in order to make diamond simulants more difficult to detect through conventional means, which may be fraudulent if they are attempting to represent a simulated diamond as real.
A small number of otherwise gem-quality stones that possess a brown body color can have their color significantly lightened or altogether removed by HPHT treatment, or, depending on the type of diamond, improve existing color to a more desirable saturation. The process was introduced by General Electric in 1999. Diamonds treated to become colorless are all Type IIa and owe their marring color to structural defects that arose during crystal growth, known as plastic deformations, rather than to interstitial nitrogen impurities as is the case in most diamonds with brown color. HPHT treatment is believed to repair these deformations, and thus whiten the stone. (This is probably an incorrect conclusion, the whitening due to destruction of stable vacancy clusters according to one of the researchers). Type Ia diamonds, which have nitrogen impurities present in clusters that do not normally affect body color, can also have their color altered by HPHT. Some synthetic diamonds have also been given HPHT treatment to alter their optical properties and thus make them harder to differentiate from natural diamonds. Pressures of up to 70,000 atmospheres and temperatures of up to 2,000 °C (3,632 °F) are used in HPHT procedure.
Also in 1999, Novatek, a Provo, UT manufacturer of industrial diamonds known for its advancements in diamond synthesis, accidentally discovered that the color of diamonds could be changed by the HPHT process. The company formed NovaDiamond, Inc. to market the process. By applying heat and pressure to natural stones, NovaDiamond could turn brown Type I diamonds light yellow, greenish yellow, or yellowish green; improve Type IIa diamonds by several color grades, even to white; intensify the color of yellow Type I diamonds; and make some bluish gray Type I and Type IIb colorless (although in some cases natural bluish gray diamonds are more valuable left alone, as blue is a highly desired hue). In 2001, however, NovaDiamond quit the HPHT gem business because of what the company's leader, David Hall, characterized as the underhanded practices of dealers. Apparently, dealers were passing off NovaDiamond enhanced gems as naturally colored, and the company refused to be party to this deception.
Definitive identification of HPHT stones is left to well-equipped gemological laboratories, where Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy are used to analyze the visible and infrared absorption of suspect diamonds to detect characteristic absorption lines, such as those indicative of exposure to high temperatures. Indicative features seen under the microscope include: internal graining (Type IIa); partially healed feathers; a hazy appearance; black cracks surrounding inclusions; and a beaded or frosted girdle. Diamonds treated to remove their color by General Electric are given laser inscriptions on their girdles: these inscriptions read "GE POL", with "POL" standing for Pegasus Overseas Ltd, a partnered firm. It is possible to polish this inscription away, so its absence cannot be a trusted sign of natural color. Although it is permanent, HPHT treatment should be disclosed to the buyer at the time of sale.
Ever wonder how the tradition of giving an engagement ring got started? Well, it wasn't always diamonds and platinum. In fact, rubies, claddagh rings, and even thimbles (yep, you heard us) were popular choices at periods during the history of giving this ring.
We have taken a closer look at royal engagements and selected five special rings to remember; from Grace Kelly's emerald cut 10.47 carat engagement ring to the touching story centred around the ring given to Kate Middleton by Prince William, when he proposed during a holiday in Kenya in 2010.
American actress Grace Kelly and Prince Rainier III of Monaco met in 1955 during a photo shoot at the Palace of Monaco, they quickly fell in love and before the end of the year the Prince proposed. To celebrate the proposal, Prince Rainier III originally gave his future wife a ruby and diamond eternity ring from Cartier. Soon, however, he realised that a larger, more traditional engagement ring was a better fit for a Princess and gave her a 10.47 Cartier carat emerald cut diamond ring flanked by two baguettes. This ring was never to leave her finger. Grace Kelly even wore it in the 1956 romantic comedy High Society, where she can be seen polishing the ring as the character Tracy Samantha Lord. In 1956 Grace Kelly and Prince Rainier III of Monaco married in two separate ceremonies: a civil ceremony on April 18th and a Catholic Mass on April 19th. The wedding was hailed as "The Wedding of the Century".
Grace Kelly shows her engagement ring from Prince Rainier III.
When the 28-year-old Mary Donaldson went out to meet her friends and a group of Spanish athletes at the Slip Inn Pub in Sydney during the Summer Olympics in 2000, she had no idea that her life was about to change. The man she initially only knew as "Fred" turned out to be both the love of her life and the Crown Prince of Denmark. After three years of dating, the couple announced their engagement on October 8th, 2003. When Frederik popped the question, he proposed with a beautiful emerald cut diamond ring flanked by two ruby baguettes. Crown Prince Frederik chose these stones to symbolise the colours of the Danish flag. At the wedding Mary received an 18 carat white gold ring with 24 square princess cut diamonds that she wears alongside her engagement ring. During the ceremony she also carried her late mother's wedding ring; it was stitched into the bodice of her dress.
Crown Prince Frederik is far from the only prince to give his future wife rubies. Prince Andrew, when proposing to Sarah Ferguson on February 19th, 1986, gave his bride-to-be an engagement ring with a stunning Burmese ruby, surrounded by ten drop diamonds. It is a Garrard ring made from Prince Andrew's own sketches. The mounting is 18 carat white and yellow gold. Originally appointed official Crown Jeweller by Queen Victoria in 1843 Garrard was been responsible for delivering jewellery to the British royal family for the better part of two centuries. In 2007, the Queen appointed a new Crown Jeweller that was to be replaced only four years later by Martin Swift of the silversmiths Mappin & Webb.
When Sweden's Princess Madeleine married her New York banker, Christopher O'Neill, on June 8th last year we couldn't help but feel a bit of extra happiness: Madeleine got a breath-taking, fairy tale wedding with a man who truly deserves her attention. After Madeleine's relationship to Jonas Bergström ended, she moved to New York, where she met O'Neill in 2010. On October 25th, 2012 Chris proposed to his Princess with a dazzling engagement ring with a four carat square emerald-cut diamond surrounded by tiny brilliant cut diamonds in a so called pave mounting. The ring is said to be worth more than £11,000.
One of the more creative and romantic royal proposals took place around Christmas, 1994 on a ski lift in Switzerland, where Crown Prince Pavlos of Greece asked socialite Marie-Chantal Miller the big question. The ring he gave her once belonged to his mother, Queen Anne-Marie and features an heirloom cabochon sapphire. Before proposing to Marie-Chantal, Pavlos had a heart-shaped diamond added to the ring as a personal touch. The couple was married six months later, on July 1st, 1995, in London's Cathedral of St. Sophia.
The last ring to be mentioned is a ring that most of us are already very familiar with. The story surrounding this ring however, cannot be told too many times. We are, of course, thinking of Kate Middleton's engagement ring. For about eight years we all held our breaths as Prince William and Kate Middleton's love story evolved before our very eyes. The couple first met in 2001 while studying at the University of St. Andrews. Finally on October 20th, 2010 William proposed to Kate with the same engagement ring that his father had given to his mother 29 years earlier. As a romantic and commemorative gesture, he gave her the 12 carat oval Ceylon sapphire surrounded by a cluster of 14 diamonds set in white gold. The whole world watched the spectacular wedding that took place in London on April 29th, 2011.
[Interesting fact: When chosen by Diana for her engagement with Prince Charles, the ring caused a bit of a stir as it was not unique, but part of Garrard's catalogue, making it available to anyone.]